Past Perfect Exercises Advanced

to the cinema last week. Exercises to practise the perfect. I couldn’t call anyone because I had lost my phone. Fullscreen: Past tenses and Present Perfect advanced by joannajs. Write answers to these questions using the past simple, present perfect simple and present perfect continuous. Free Practice Tests for learners of English. ESL Intermediate/Advanced Level Online Games and Activities. the week before 5. This is a classroom game where students choose points and answer questions to score points. Answer: present perfect with since, indicating a period of time from the past to the present. Past perfect exercises with answers. Free Practice Tests for learners of English. Examples of the Past Perfect Tense Here are some examples of the past perfect tense (shaded): Silverfinger had taken the pill before the team reached him. Past perfect simple - exercise 5. 0 International License. Hundreds of English lessons to help you learn English today!. This present perfect reading comprehension exercise is a story about two people doing job interviews. Irregular Verbs. This period of time is not yet complete and could continue in the. The intermediate version of the worksheet includes a grammar section on past, present perfect and past perfect tenses. NOTE The most common mistake with the past perfect is to overuse it or to use it simply because we are talking about a time in the distant past. To say how many times To talk about a recent action which might not be finished To talk about life experience When the result is more important To explain the 'side effects' of an activity,. Past tenses revision by mada_1: was-were by Alpensan: Past Tense of verbs by Ibonne: Mixed Tenses (Past) by estherlee76: Lucky Luke by ab25: Simple past past continuous past perfect practice by GinaVargas: Unreal Uses of Past Tenses by Gi2gi: past simple versus continuous by MissBernath: Past Continuous v Simple Past by estherlee76: past tense. Read on for detailed descriptions, examples, and present perfect exercises. We use this tense when we want to focus on duration. What Is the Past Perfect Tense? (with Examples) The past perfect tense is used to emphasize that an action was completed before another took place. The doctor took off the plaster that he (put on) six weeks before. Past Perfect Tense. had been working C 1. When she opened the door, he had already left. (had done, did) grammar: past : All exercises are self-checker. Online exercises English grammar and courses Free tutorial Past perfect. So the past perfect is used to make clear that one action happened before another in the past. Practice 1: Complete these sentences with the past perfect simple of the words in brackets(). My father lives in Las Vegas. English grammar lesson on-line for advanced level students or teachers - An in depth examination of the Perfect Aspect in the forms of the Present, Past and Future. Past perfect simple We use the past perfect simple to talk about an earlier past: events which happened before the main event. Past or Past Perfect Tense - Simple: Fill in the correct form. Narrative tenses new english file advanced, Past simple, Past Continuos, Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous, Action/ State verbs, Used to / Would, Time clauses 1. Photo of Muhammad Ali from Dutch National Archives, licensed under CC BY-SA 3. ★ How Long Do I Have To Exercise To Lose Weight How To Lose Weight Fast Taking Adipex How To Lose Weight Fast After Gastric Sleeve How Did I Lose Weight So Fast I Use To Be 215 And Know I Am How Often Should You Workout To Lose Weight Fast How To Lose Leg Weight In A Week. A collection of downloadable worksheets, exercises and activities to teach Future perfect, shared by English language teachers. past perfect simple and past perfect continuous. Like English, Spanish has the compound verb form called the present perfect. Past Simple or Present Perfect - English Quiz You got: % Correct. Mixed fill in the blanks exercise covering simple tenses, continuous tenses and perfect tenses for more advanced students. com The best free resources to learn and teach English Past Simple vs. Complete the following sentences with the verbs in brackets. The past perfect is a verb tense which is used to show that an action took place once or many times before another point in the past. United have won the Cup, so it’s theirs now. Past Perfect or Past Tense - English online grammar exercise. Earlier single events We use the past perfect simple to talk about earlier events and experiences, or single actions completed earlier in the past. After Sofie had finished her work, she went to lunch. a) always the same form as b) sometimes a different form from. English Past perfect exercises. But in case of 'the past perfect', I have found many examples in which adverbs indicating 'specific time' is used like following. More PDF worksheets: Past simple PDF Exercises with answers to download for free. hadn’t been watching 3. Present Perfect tense (We have gone) and Simple past tense (we went) - English Grammar Lesson - Duration: 16:51. In this rewarding past perfect activity, students write explanations for saying certain things and then play a game where they match a partner's explanations to questions. The past perfect continuous tense (also known as the past perfect progressive tense) shows that an action that started in the past continued up until another time in the past. Past Perfect, Questions, Online Exercise, Learning Englisch. However, the difference between the events is that the past perfect event also ended in the past. This period of time is not yet complete and could continue in the. has been thinking 2. You form the present perfect using has or have followed by a past participle verb. You should at least find out more about exercises you can’t perform before ranking them. Exercise Number: 4G4. Mixed Tenses Test Exercises - Multiple Choice Questions With Answers - Advanced Level 3 29 Free Online English Grammar Quizzes - Tests - Exercises About Mixed Tenses Test Exercises - Multiple Choice Questions With Answers - Advanced Level 3. when I got to the party everyone had left. The past perfect is a grammatical combination of past tense with the perfect, itself a combination of tense and aspect, that exists in most Indo-European languages. There are 10 pages of practice with the past perfect and the past perfect progressive, as well as comparisons of the past perfect vs. These advanced tenses were mentioned briefly in Helping Verbs, and they came up again in Participles. to the cinema last week. What was Dan doing when it started to rain? He was walking to work. This information gap practices passive and active voice (mostly past simple passive, 1 past simple active, 1 past perfect, 2 present simple questions). The key to understanding the past perfect is that is used to express something which was completed in the past before something else took place. Present Perfect Continuous Tense Exercises With Answers. Find mistakes and correct them: She played the flute and then she had sung in the choir. We use it to emphasize that that something happened before the another one. It is based on a Mr. Hi, If someone could please tell me what mistakes I'm making using past perfect properly in this past-tense first person narrative, I would appreciate it so much. Easy to advanced. Exercise 1 - Nouns. Conjunctions • advanced uses of conjunctions. Login Logout. • Use the helping verb phrase “ had been” before a verb in past perfect progressive tense to describe all subjects (I, we, you, they, he, she, it). Gramática da Língua Inglesa Past Simple v. In this article, I will share information about the exercises and stretches, given to me by physiotherapists, that have helped me the most. Past simple and past perfect exercises for intermediate level esl. Apuntes Idiomas Inglés Gramatica inglesa Verb tense Exercises: Present and Past (simple, continuous and perfect) Temas Ejercicios del presente y pasado (simple, continuo y perfecto). What characteristics and interests did Elyse and Paula have in common? 3. AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV (OTCPK:AMVMF) Q3 2019 Earnings Conference Call October 31, 2019 4:00 AM ETCompany Participants. Find mistakes and correct them: She played the flute and then she had sung in the choir. She has taught school for 20 years. have been reading 4. Students take it in turns to read out statements using the past simple: the house was a mess on Sunday morning. Past Perfect Tense test - English Grammar Grammar exercises. We use the past continuous tense to stress that an activity was in progress at every moment during a period of time. Practice with students and compare their answers with the corrects answers given in the article. Here are top tips that you can start today on how to do exercises to become a stronger rower. The past perfect is a verb tense which is used to show that an action took place once or many times before another point in the past. o Before her promotion, Nico had been working on restoring open space on campus. This is a free multiple-choice quiz that you can do online or print out. Past perfect passive PDF It had been finished. Online exercises with questions and Past perfect positive and negative sentences. simple action in the past → simple past. This site contains hundreds of online grammar exercises covering nearly all the grammar topics. 2) 2 is ambiguos since "Ann is waiting for me" makes perfect sense too. Online quiz to test your understanding of the Present Perfect Continuous tense in English. Have you been taking 4. (past perfect) Richard needed a holiday because he had been working hard for six months. a) a main verb only b) an auxiliary and past participle 2. Past perfect exercises. The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we (build). Past perfect continuous The past perfect can also be used in the continuous. • Use the helping verb phrase “ had been” before a verb in past perfect progressive tense to describe all subjects (I, we, you, they, he, she, it). Complete the sentences using the correct perfect tenses. This present perfect reading comprehension exercise is a story about two people doing job interviews. Please buy it from trusted store. This is a free multiple-choice quiz that you can do online or print out. -PAST PERFECT - PAST SIMPLE THEORY PERFECT TENSES_ MORE PRACTICE + solutions - volunteer photocopies 1. Click on the answer you think is correct. Earlier single events We use the past perfect simple to talk about earlier events and experiences, or single actions completed earlier in the past. These exercises will help you develop listening skills for verbs in the past tense. A collection of downloadable worksheets, exercises and activities to teach Future perfect, shared by English language teachers. The intermediate version of the worksheet includes a grammar section on past, present perfect and past perfect tenses. A tornado has just hit downtown. Already, always, ever, and never often come before the past participle. NOTE The most common mistake with the past perfect is to overuse it or to use it simply because we are talking about a time in the distant past. EA English Tenses in Urdu presents Online Tenses Test with Urdu Translation an Exercise of Worksheet to practice Free Tenses With PDF and Online Test of Present Past Future Indefinite Perfect Continuous Tenses with All Sorts of Examples simple and progressive Way. Simple past, past progressive, past perfect simple, past perfect progressive. Exercise Number: 4G4. There are 10 pages of practice with the past perfect and the past perfect progressive, as well as comparisons of the past perfect vs. simple past 44 CHAPTER 4,The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect CHART 4-4: SIMPLE PAST vs. I realised I had been working too hard so I decided to have a holiday. It will give a much fuller. It can be done in parallel bars or in a normal pull up bar. Home Page >> Grammar Exercises >> Advanced Grammar Exercises - Advanced Level. There are exercises on all areas of learning English. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Mary had given me Tony's address before she left. Example: When I got (get) home, I realised (realise) I had left (leave) my sunglasses in the office. We have lived in Canada for a long time. By the time I got used to life in Milan, I had been there for. Answer the questions. GCSE French Listening Answers 1 1. Hope pictures draw the attention, too ;-) enjoy. English ESL Present perfect tenses, Advanced (C1) worksheets - Most downloaded (38 Results) given to write in present perfect. To say how many times To talk about a recent action which might not be finished To talk about life experience When the result is more important To explain the 'side effects' of an activity,. Get TOEFL Practice Online for Your Students! Dave Sperling Presents The Simple Past and Past Progressive 1, by Dennis Oliver American Language and Culture Program, Arizona State University. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non-Commercial - No-Derivatives 4. Examples: I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. In other words, it is a continuous occurrence in the past that stopped at another specific point in the past. 0 International License. exercises practising the Simple Past Passive (The house was built. Understand meaning and use of past tense in reporting earlier events; review past, progressive, and perfect forms and back-shifting tense in subordinate clauses. Future perfect progressive The future perfect progressive tense indicates that an action will continue until a certain future time. The past perfect is used to mean that something had already happened at the time we are talking about it. Story ordering and gap fill exercises for a simple story using narrative tenses: past simple, past continuous and past perfect (including some passives). Past Perfect Continuous Tense test - English Grammar. Narrative tenses new english file advanced, Past simple, Past Continuos, Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous, Action/ State verbs, Used to / Would, Time clauses 1. graduated 8. Hi, If someone could please tell me what mistakes I'm making using past perfect properly in this past-tense first person narrative, I would appreciate it so much. exercises practising the Simple Past Passive (The house was built. It is used to refer to an event that had continuing relevance to a past time. He has cleaned Ills shoes. Use contractions in negatives and after pronouns. This is especially. - My aunt flew to Paris last year. _____ (be) a young man, he 2 _____ (fall) in love with the mayor's daughter. Choose from the index on the left to access the exercises. This past perfect exercise practises making the question ('yes / no' and 'wh') forms. Online quiz to test your understanding of the Present Perfect tense in English. Exercise 6: Choose the correct answers. • Use the helping verb phrase " had been" before a verb in past perfect progressive tense to describe all subjects (I, we, you, they, he, she, it). I used this scene to have students practice the use of the past perfect x simple past tenses. Past Perfect or Past Simple after Conjunctions? When we are talking about an earlier past and use conjunctions such as after, before, as soon as, etc we can use the past perfect; however, it is usually not necessary if the sequence of events is clear: After Paul moved out/had moved out, I decided not to look for a new flat-mate. Free Italian exercises. Want c) Students have wanted better university transport since last year. "After writing and teaching many advanced penetration testing and exploit development courses over the past 10 years, I started to see a trend developing. • Use the helping verb phrase " had been" before a verb in past perfect progressive tense to describe all subjects (I, we, you, they, he, she, it). Practice: Exercises on the Past Perfect Simple & Past Perfect Progressive Exercise #1 – Past Simple or Past Perfect Simple? Remember, if two actions happen in chronological order, then use the past simple for both. Past simple or present perfect? - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary. All Tenses. 7 I have been waiting (present perfect continuous) 8 would have known 9 signed (past simple) 10 When did Columbus discover (past simple) 11 I will call (future 1) - I get (present simple) 12 she has broken (present perfect simple) 13 She (had) lived (pluperfect or past simple) - moved (past simple). Expressing past time in French The preterite and perfect tenses There are four indicative past tenses in French, plus less common subjunctive forms. 1 Duration before a past event/action. It is often used for a sequence of actions. Past Perfect/Past Progressive Review Past Perfect Progressive Tense Gerunds and Infinitives Using Infinitives after "Too" and "Enough" Gerund Review Gerund and Infinitive Quiz Phrasal Verbs Phrasal Verb Practice Two Correct the Errors The Superlative with the Third Form Participle. Advanced level, Lesson: Present Perfect vs. It is made up of two parts: the auxiliary verb haber in its present indicative form, conjugated according to the subject and a past participle. Home / Grammar / Verb Tenses / YES / NO Questions - Past Perfect Progressive About We are dedicated to creating and providing free, high-quality English language learning resources. Exercise Number: 4G4. The future perfect tense can be used to express plans or. There are 10 pages of practice with the past perfect and the past perfect progressive, as well as comparisons of the past perfect vs. Comparison of Simple Past and Past Perfect. What was surprising about the twins' adoption? 2. Click here to review how to make the past perfect. to the cinema last week. - My aunt flew to Paris last year. He had written a letter to María. 1 Direct to Indirect Speech using Past Perfect Tense. Past perfect simple - exercise 5. Functions of the past perfect continuous The past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous, but with reference to a time earlier than 'before now'. Tigers - This activity is a warmer for the retelling of a Korean folk story (can be changed to any type of folk story), which practices the narrative tenses. We hope that you find exactly what you need for your home or classroom!. Practice: Exercises on the Past Perfect Simple & Past Perfect Progressive Exercise #1 – Past Simple or Past Perfect Simple? Remember, if two actions happen in chronological order, then use the past simple for both. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the verbs in Past Perfect. Complete the sentences with the past perfect of the verb in brackets. We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something stared in the past and continued to a point in the past. Have you been taking 4. Only 1 particular jar runs greater as eighty dollars. Present Perfect tense (We have gone) and Simple past tense (we went) - English Grammar Lesson - Duration: 16:51. Click here to review how to make the past perfect. ★ How Many Calories Can I Eat To Lose Weight Without Exercise - Keto Diet With Supplements Not Food How Many Calories Can I Eat To Lose Weight Without Exercise Ketogenic Diet Plan For Body Building Keto Advanced Weight Loss Pills Do They Work. This tense is only used when the contrast in timing is important to our understanding of the relationship of the two events, for example, the effect of the earlier event on the later event. There are 10 pages of practice with the past perfect and the past perfect progressive, as well as comparisons of the past perfect vs. Past simple and past perfect exercises advanced level esl. It uses the Flash player plug-in. Past Perfect Exercise 1. Remember to use contractions ("I'd" not "I had") where possible. Teaching past perfect tense can be challenging and confusing. had been working 5. Past Simple Tense - Spin the Wheel Game Create your own exercises using our. Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Simple 1 Past Simple 2 Past Simple 3 Past Simple: Negatives Past Time Words Phrasal Verbs with 'Get' Phrasal Verbs with 'Take' Phrasal Verbs with 'Up' Place and Movement Plural & Singular Nouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns Possessive: 's / s' Prefix: Re-. Get Vocabulary, Grammar and Teaching Tips, Site Updates and Special Offers Directly to Your Mailbox. This information gap practices passive and active voice (mostly past simple passive, 1 past simple active, 1 past perfect, 2 present simple questions). Adjectives. (had done, did) grammar: past : All exercises are self-checker. Write the line numbers of the four if clauses that have simple past tense verbs. Grammar videos: Present perfect: simple and continuous – exercises 1. have already seen 9. To say how many times To talk about a recent action which might not be finished To talk about life experience When the result is more important To explain the 'side effects' of an activity,. " (= Maybe they left early…). German future tense. It is also used to describe an action that was happening in the distant past. Werden needs conjugated by the infinitive form does not. It uses the Flash player plug-in. ★ How Long Do I Have To Exercise To Lose Weight How To Lose Weight Fast Taking Adipex How To Lose Weight Fast After Gastric Sleeve How Did I Lose Weight So Fast I Use To Be 215 And Know I Am How Often Should You Workout To Lose Weight Fast How To Lose Leg Weight In A Week. This study was, ergo, carried out to determine the effect, if any, of various intensities of exercise on visual and auditory reaction times. Photo of Muhammad Ali from Dutch National Archives, licensed under CC BY-SA 3. - My aunt flew to Paris last year. English grammar lesson on-line for advanced level students or teachers - An in depth examination of the Perfect Aspect in the forms of the Present, Past and Future. As in the past perfect simple, the sentence has two parts: The past perfect progressive, to refer to the action that was in process. Choose the correct verbs so that each tense appears once. The Past Simple or The Present Perfect Exercise A Match the tense uses and clue words with the past simple and present perfect. In this engaging past simple vs. Remember that some of the verbs belong to regular verbs and the others to irregular verbs. Past tense,present perfect or pluperfect - English Past tense,present perfect or pluperfect. Adjectives. Go back to the grammar exercises page Click here to download this exercise in PDF (with answers). Others have to guess the reason using the past perfect: You'd had a party the night before. A diagnostic test on the past simple and continuous, the present perfect simple and continuous, the past perfect simple and continuous: Test 3 Mixed tenses - past simple and continuous, present perfect, past perfect (pdf). Unit 12 Level 3 (Upper Intermediate-Advanced) Present Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Perfect Do you already know how to use the Present Perfect Continuous and the Present Perfect? If you are not sure please, study level 2 of this Unit and read Lesson 50. There are exercises on all areas of learning English. Examples of the Past Perfect Tense Here are some examples of the past perfect tense (shaded): Silverfinger had taken the pill before the team reached him. Earlier single events We use the past perfect simple to talk about earlier events and experiences, or single actions completed earlier in the past. Future Perfect Dan will have called before Ellen arrives. In this case, the past continuous usually refers to a longer background. If no verb is given, enter a short answer or question tag. Narrative tenses new english file advanced, Past simple, Past Continuos, Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous, Action/ State verbs, Used to / Would, Time clauses 1. True False 5. An interactive quiz for studying English. After Sofie had finished her work, she went to lunch. Simple Past Tense Exercises PDF: We have made this article to teach you about Simple Past Tense. When she went out to play, she (do / already) her homework. The time expression "last year" is used in both, but in the second example, we have added the preposition "in". Exercise 1 - Past perfect. Don’t forget to pay attention to all the examples of the present perfect. a) always the same form as b) sometimes a different form from. past perfect simple and past perfect continuous. Examples: I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. Exercises to practise the perfect. Story ordering and gap fill exercises for a simple story using narrative tenses: past simple, past continuous and past perfect (including some passives). The Past Perfect Continuous Exercise He had been eating garlic A Fill the gaps with the verb in brackets using the past perfect continuous or the past perfect simple. Past perfect sentences. These past perfect worksheets begin with a quick review of past perfect usage. Online exercises: Past simple Complete the e-mail. Remember to register to get email updates. (past perfect continuous) The past perfect tense shows two events in the past that are linked, while the past perfect continuous tense shows the cause of a past action. Change these sentences into a) the past simple, b) past continuous, c) present perfect and d) the past perfect. For best results do not use internet explorer. Easy to advanced. This worksheet provides a more in-depth practice into the difference between present perfect and simple past. In this rewarding past perfect activity, students write explanations for saying certain things and then play a game where they match a partner's explanations to questions. Apuntes gramática 3º ESO. Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous - Answers A 1. Simple past, past progressive, past perfect simple, past perfect progressive. the week before 5. Rewrite these sentences with 2-5 words, using the word given in brackets. An interactive quiz for studying English. Elementary level (97 questions Intermediate level (211 questions) Advanced level (109. is the present perfect (have + past participle. english-area. Write the line numbers of the four if clauses that have simple past tense verbs. I realised I had been working too hard so I decided to have a holiday. Online quiz to test your understanding of the Present Perfect Continuous tense in English. Practice with students and compare their answers with the corrects answers given in the article. The past perfect simple, to refer to the action that happened first or earlier; The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later; Sometimes the past perfect simple is used on its own and the action that took place afterwards is understood. The past perfect is a grammatical combination of past tense with the perfect, itself a combination of tense and aspect, that exists in most Indo-European languages. a) a main verb only b) an auxiliary and past participle 2. Grammartalk 13, Page One, Past Perfect Tense. But in case of 'the past perfect', I have found many examples in which adverbs indicating 'specific time' is used like following. In other words, it is a continuous occurrence in the past that stopped at another specific point in the past. Present perfect tense has _____. This page is concerned with the usage of the different forms of past tenses in French. Answer: past simple – a completed action in the past. Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980's, technology (change). We ate out yesterday. Exercises to practise the perfect. com offers free English lessons with English grammar and vocabulary exercises online. Don’t forget to pay attention to all the examples of the present perfect. Expressing past time in French The preterite and perfect tenses There are four indicative past tenses in French, plus less common subjunctive forms. After Sofie had finished her work, she went to lunch. NOTE The most common mistake with the past perfect is to overuse it or to use it simply because we are talking about a time in the distant past. -PAST PERFECT - PAST SIMPLE THEORY PERFECT TENSES_ MORE PRACTICE + solutions - volunteer photocopies 1. This exercise focuses on the difference between the past simple and the past perfect. graduated 8. Past perfect simple We use the past perfect simple to talk about an earlier past: events which happened before the main event. I’ve seen a video where people hold the human flag more than a minute in perfect form. In this section you will find categories for instructors-check exercises covering different aspects of the Spanish verbs. I went a few times after joining, but since then I haven't been at all. Past Perfect, Questions, Online Exercise, Learning Englisch. She has taught school for 20 years. Check your. I realised I had been working too hard so I decided to have a holiday. This past perfect exercise practises making the question ('yes / no' and 'wh') forms. Pronouns • relative pronouns • reciprocal. T038 - Past Perfect or Past Tense - Simple and Progressive Intermediate; T036 - Past Perfect or Past Tense Intermediate; Past or Past Perfect Tense - Simple T 12 Intermediate. Example: When I got (get) home, I realised (realise) I had left (leave) my sunglasses in the office. - The thieves had already spent the money when the police. I wish I had taken piano lessons. Each student is given a copy of the worksheet. The past perfect tense describes a past action that has relevance to another past event. Hundreds of English lessons to help you learn English today!. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain. Englisch-hilfen. It also shows an action that happened before a specific time in the past. (past perfect continuous) The past perfect tense shows two events in the past that are linked, while the past perfect continuous tense shows the cause of a past action. NARRATIVE TENSES New English File Advanced A PowerPoint by Ana Flores 2. past perfect subjunctive of irregular verbs • all verbs in the past perfect subjunctive • sequence of tenses • passive voice. Present perfect. Fill the gaps with either the present perfect or the past simple. This past perfect exercise practises making the question ('yes / no' and 'wh') forms. True False 6. Past perfect passive PDF It had been finished. Past perfect simple We use the past perfect simple to talk about an earlier past: events which happened before the main event. Past Perfect Practice [Advanced English Verb Tense] Present Perfect Practice [Advanced English Verb Tenses] But Also [Advanced English Sentence Structure] - Duration:. This lesson looks at the recent death of boxing great Muhammad Ali.